HISTORY OF THE
lies on the Roman Fosse Way, and there are Roman settlements in the county, for example at Mansfield. The county
was settled by Angles around the 5th century, and became part of the Kingdom, and later Earldom, of Mercia.
However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at Oxton, near Nottingham, and Tuxford, east of Sherwood
Forest. The name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568 the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under
a single Sheriff. In Norman times the county developed malting and woollen industries. During the
industrial revolution canals and railways came to the county, and the lace and cotton industries
grew. In the 19th century collieries opened and mining became an important economic sector, though these
declined after the 1984-5 miners' strike.
Until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes. Sometime between 1610 and 1719
they were reduced to six – Newark, Bassetlaw, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe, Broxtowe and Bingham, some of these names
still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay
division, and Lythe in Thurgarton.
Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood. This is also the
reason for the amount of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham and the surrounding
villages in Sherwood Forest. To reinforce the Robin Hood connection, the University of Nottingham in 2010 has begun
the Nottingham Caves Survey with the goal "to increase the tourist potential of these sites". The project "will use
a 3D laser scanner to produce a three dimensional record of more than 450 sandstone caves around Nottingham".
Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576, the first fully surveyed map of
the county was by John Chapman who produced Chapman's Map of Nottinghamshire in 1774. The map was the earliest
printed map at a sufficiently useful scale (one statute mile to one inch) to provide basic information on village
layout and the existence of landscape features such as roads, milestones, tollbars, parkland and mills.
Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire and South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900
metres (3,000 feet) thick and occurring largely in the north of the county. There is an oilfield near Eakring.
These are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west and clay in the east. The north of the county is part
of the Humberhead Levels lacustrine plain. The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest,
features undulating hills with ancient oak woodland. Principal rivers are the Trent, Idle, Erewash and Soar. The
Trent, fed by the Soar and Erewash, and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and
flat valleys, merging at Misterton. Strawberry Bank in Huthwaite is the highest natural point in Nottinghamshire at
203m., while Silverhill, a spoil heap left by the former Silverhill colliery, is the highest man-made point at
Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives relatively low rainfall at
641–740 mm (25–29 in) annually. The average temperature of the county is 8.8-10.1 degrees Celsius (48-50 degrees
Fahrenheit). The county receives between 1321 and 1470 hours of sunshine per year.